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Internet - Internet Application

Internet Application
FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol, and is part of the TCP/IP protocol suite. It is the protocol, or set of rules, which enables files to be transferred between computers. FTP is a powerful tool which allows files to be transferred from "computer A" to "computer B", or vice versa.
FTP works on the client/server principle. A client program enables the user to interact with a server in order to access information and services on the server computer. Files that can be transferred are stored on computers called FTP servers. To access these files, an FTP client program is used. This is an interface that allows the user to locate the file(s) to be transferred and initiate the transfer process.
The basic steps to use FTP are:
• Connect to the FTP server
Navigate the file structure to find the file you want
Transfer the file
The specifics of each step will vary, depending on the client program being used and the type of Internet connection. Anonymous FTP allows a user to access a wealth of publicly available information. No special account or password is needed.
However, an anonymous FTP site will sometimes ask that users login with the name "anonymous" and use their electronic mail address as the password. Here is a sample login screen at SURAnet, which was accessed from a UNIX environment. Note that when a password is typed in, the characters do not appear on the screen.
Some FTP screens may look different, depending on the client being used.
There is a wide variety of files that are publicly available through anonymous FTP:
Shareware - software that you can use free for a trial period but then pay a fee for Freeware - completely free software, for example fonts, clipart and games Upgrades & Patches - upgrades to current software and "fixes" for software problems
Documents - examples include research papers, articles and Internet documentation
Files on FTP servers are often compressed. Compression decreases file size. This enables more files to be stored on the server and makes file transfer times shorter. In order to use a compressed file it needs to be decompressed using appropriate software.
It is a good idea to have current virus checking software on the computer before files are transferred to it. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is the protocol, or set of rules, which enables files to be transferred from one computer to another. It is part of the TCP/IP protocol suite.
Files that are available for FTP are stored on computers called FTP servers. An FTP client program is an interface that allows the user to locate the file(s) to be transferred and initiate the transfer process. It is a good idea to have current virus checking software and compression/decompression software before downloading files.
Through anonymous FTP, users have access to many types of files including shareware, freeware, upgrades and documents.
• Connecting to a "remote" computer
Terminal emulation
Client/Server based
Access to resources on other machines
Telnet is a protocol, or set of rules, that enables one computer to connect to another computer. This process is also referred to as remote login.
The user's computer, which initiates the connection, is referred to as the local computer, and the machine being connected to, which accepts the connection, is referred to as the remote, or host, computer. The remote computer can be physically located in the next room, the next town, or in another country.
Once connected, the user's computer emulates the remote computer. When the user types in commands, they are executed on the remote computer. The user's monitor displays what is taking place on the remote computer during the telnet session.
The procedure for connecting to a remote computer will depend on how your Internet access is set-up.
Once a connection to a remote computer is made, instructions or menus may appear. Some remote machines may require a user to have an account on the machine, and may prompt users for a username and password.
Many resources, such as library catalogs, are available via telnet without an account and password.
News Groups
Newsgroups (also called Usenet), work something like SOFWeb's electronic discussion lists, but rather than the discussions being hosted on SOFWeb, they are held on your Internet Service Provider's server. Most newsgroups are open to anyone to read or post to, and unlike e-mail discussion lists, or SOFWeb's discussion lists, you don't need to register to use them.
In order to read them you will need news reader software, such as the one provided with Netscape Navigator. To be able to access the newsgroups you will need to ask your ISP for the correct information.
There are thousands and thousands of news groups, covering an enormous range of subjects. Just about any topic you can think of probably has a news group dedicated to it, so they can be a terrific way of accessing expert knowledge in a wide variety of areas.
Some news groups are moderated, which means that each message must be approved by the moderator before it can be posted to the group, but most news groups are unmoderated. Some of the more popular news groups have a daily readership of tens of thousands of people from all over the world, so as you can imagine, the content reflects this enormous diversity of opinion and knowledge of netiquette!
Because the news groups are publicly accessible, the discussions can be much less controlled than either SOFWeb's discussions or e-mail lists, and, in all cases, should be carefully monitored by teachers if they choose to allow students access to them. They are probably most appropriate for older students.
Careful attention to netiquette will allow students to use news groups appropriately. It is likely that your ISP will block access to the more offensive news groups, and you should check this with your provider to make sure.
However, there are news groups which are safe and appropriate for students to use. These are the news groups set up to support the I*EARN projects. You will need to be a member of I*EARN to access these news groups. iearn.
youth is a news groups set up especially as a meeting place for students and young people, but in order for students to make the best use of it, teachers will still need to ensure that there are clear expectations of appropriate behaviour.
Video Conferencing
Video conferencing involves the visual communication of parties around the world. You can use Video conferencing to link up with specific parties or you can join Video conferencing communities that operate in the same way Internet Chat does. There are 38 Victorian Government schools using Video conferencing technology which allows teachers and students to communicate verbally, electronically and visually as if they were in the classroom.
On-line discussion groups and electronic mail enable teachers and students to interact between lessons. Clusters of rural schools also purchase mobile technology resources jointly. These shared resources, ShareTeks, are rotated around the schools in the clusters for use by students and teachers. For more information on this Learning Technologies Project
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Try this Real Video Movies showing students using Video conferencing.
The Education Department's SOFNet studio offers facilities for anyone to book their Video conferencing suite at 23 St Andrews Place - Melbourne. You can book these facilities by contacting Carmel Mauro. To book facilities held in schools contact the schools directly. If you would like to set up your own Video conferencing facilities from your computer read on.
What you will need?
If you would like to be a receiver - that is only 'see and hear the conversation', you will be able to do this with any standard Mac and if you have a Sound card and Video card on any standard PC.
If you would also like to also be a sender that is - 'transmit your voice and video' you will also need a digital camera and PC users will need a microphone. These cameras can be purchase for about $100 for both MAC's and PC's and microphones for around $20. And you will also need the software program!
The most popular program is CU-SeeME. It is a free Video conferencing program (under copyright of Cornell University and its collaborators) available to anyone with a Macintosh or Windows and a connection to the Internet. With CU-SeeMe, you can video conference with another site located anywhere in the world. If you want to conference with more than one other person/computer you need to connect to a reflector. By using a reflector, multiple parties at different locations can participate in a CU-SeeMe conference, each from his or her own desktop computer. With CU-SeeMe each participant can decide to be a sender, a receiver, or both. cuseeme.gif - 7.8 K
Receiving requires only a standard Mac and a connection to the Internet. Sending requires the same plus a camera and digitizer which can cost as little as $100 to add on.
For PC User to send and receive video you will need a video card supports Microsoft Video For Windows and a video camera to plug into the video card. To send & receive audio you'll also need a Sound Card that conforms to the Windows MultiMedia Specification (Sound Blaster or better). Full Duplex audio is very desirable and Speakers (or headphones) and a microphone.
Chatting is one of the most popular activities on the Internet and involves people from all walks off life and just about all ages to coming together in areas where they can join in on in a variety of topics that they are interested in with people all around the world. Traditionally chat is text based but can also involve audio and video. In public chat areas people use "user names" or "nicknames" or sometimes represent themselves as graphical icons or "avatars" as they are known in the chat world.

Chatting can be great fun, but because it is basically an anonymous encounter the risk of being deceived is high if you are entering public chat areas where the other users aren't known to you.
There are public chat areas just for children, but because it is impossible to know anything about people on the Internet except what they choose to tell you, there is no guarantee that the users of children's chat areas are in fact, children,
While real time communication can be engaging and educationally useful, we strongly suggest it be used with students in a controlled environment using programs that enable direct links with specific parties rather than joining these public areas. In all cases where students are going to communicate on-line they should be aware of Netiquette and My Rules For Online Safety.
There are two main types of internet chats. One is the web based chat room. These are graphical where people can choose images to represent themselves and offer elaborate virtual environments. They are not real time, messages will come up on your screen if you press the refresh or reload button.
Some of the latest web based chats use server push technology or java, so that you don't have to press the refresh button but it still isn't as quick as the second type of chat called internet relay chat or IRC. This is not on the world wide web, but found directly on servers. It is a text-based chat (no pictures) and real time (all messages immediately come on screen when entered).
Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
IRC is a multi-user chat system, where people meet on Channels (rooms, virtual places, usually with a certain topic of conversation) to talk in groups, or privately. There is no restriction to the number of people that can participate in a given discussion, or the number of channels that can be formed on IRC. IRC uses a streaming technology so basically how fast you type is how fast your messages are up.
With traditional IRC software like Mirc you would download the software, select a nickname, choose and connect to an IRC server using that software and then choose one of the thousands of channels (virtual rooms) you see on the list. The content of many IRC chat areas can be rough and uncensored, and because they are publicly accessible they attract a very diverse range of people.
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There are other programs available that connect to a specific IRC server and run theme based colorful chats, in order to participate in these chats, you need to have particular chat software, not generic software such as mIRC.
The Palace
The Palace is a popular shareware program in which you can use your own images as your avatar or use the standard images provided until you pay and register. There are many rooms to visit like the Haunted Palace, a cyberspace amusement park, the original Time Warner Palace with over 30 rooms, and a host of others. When you speak a balloon image comes up with the text inside and you can use sounds and animations provided to provide some emotion to your conversation.
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Worlds Chat
Worlds Chat is a 3d chat program in which each visitor is represented by a 3d image, or avatar, of their choice which you can then use to move around the 3d Worlds. The visuals in this one are fantastic. You can even build your own 3d house in this program. Only available for PC users though.
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Virtual Places
Virtual Places allows you to use a selection of images or your own as your avatar. Your messages come up in a bubble over your image. You can also play sounds and animations provided. There is a wide selection of theme based rooms, virtual streets and virtual cafes to chat in.
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Microsoft's Comic Strip
This uses a comic strip as the theme for the chat where you are a character and all messages are shown as a cartoon strip. Visually this is really great to see.
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Private Chat Programs
There are programs available that can be used to dial up specific parties only. In a classroom environment this type of program can be used to set up discussions between students or teachers working on collaborative projects with other schools around the world.
Web Based Chat
Sometimes they can get a little slow. Some of them will use java, server push technology and some will require you to press the refresh/reload button for you to see any new messages.
Internet Telephone
Several programs have become available that will let you, equipped with the right computer hardware, an Internet connection, and special software, to speak (voice) in real-time over the Internet - in effect using the network like a telephone. These audio conferencing programs work by digitizing your speech as you talk and sending the digital data over the Internet. If you have a good Internet connection then the sound quality is comparable to a regular phone call. However the sound quality varies dramatically between applications and depends largely on the local capacity at each end.
In nearly all cases, the limiting factor will not be the speed and capacity of the Internet, but will depend on the local network at each end.

The newer software operates in full duplex - that is In a full duplex conversation, you can speak and hear the other person at the same time. In half duplex, only one person can speak at the same time, and if you speak while the other person speaks, then you will not be able to hear each other.
Your sound card will either be full duplex or half duplex, which will control which mode you can operate in. Most new Macs come equipped with full duplex sound cards, but most PC's do not. When you load the application, if it does not let you choose full-duplex mode, then you probably have a half duplex card.
Speak Freely
Speak Freely is free and one of the best applications available. It offers many features more advanced than commercial software such as voice mail, compression, multicasting, encryption, and usually offers excellent sound quality. Operates in Full & Half Duplex mode. Windows based program.
Internet Phone
VocalTec's Internet Phone has quickly become the most popular Internet telephony software. The latest version offers an incredible user interface, and many advance features including an excellent user directory, full/half duplex, low bandwidth demands.
It runs on top of Internet Relay Chat, providing you with a list of on-line users and topics of conversation, making it easy to find new people to chat with. The demo version only gives you one minute online time. You can purchase it for $US99. For MAC's & PC's.
With Internet phone you are able to use it to call someone who has a regular telephone by connecting to what is called a "phone gateway." There is a volunteer project known as Free World Dialup which allows people using Internet Phone to make calls to regular phone networks using a phone gateway.
Microsoft NetMeeting
Netmeeting includes many advanced features such as text chat, whiteboard, file transfer and is set up to make large conferences easy to use. One of the most useful features is that it allows application sharing where one user can take control of the other user's computer and see their applications. Platform: Windows. For more information about NetMeeting, see A Beginner's Guide to NetMeeting written by Lindsay Clapperton, Principal of Porepunkah PS.
A MUD (Multiple User Dimension, Multiple User Dungeon, or Multiple User Dialogue) is a program where you choose a character or avatar to represent yourself and then you walk around, chat with other characters, explore dangerous monster-infested areas, solve puzzles, combat evil tyrants, and build on the existing MUD world.
Most MUDs you will find are social games but they are also used for education and research. There are different types of MUDs such as MOOs, UnterMuds, MUSHes, etc., each of them have their own style.
Getting Started
After you have decided on the chat you want to enter you will need to choose a 'nickname' or 'handle'. You want to use something very original and imaginative. Most standard names will usually already be taken and your name is going to be what initially catches peoples eye.
Some web based chats, Virtual Places and The Palace allow you to put your own images up next to your 'nickname'. You want to select a picture that is small that represent you or the name you have chosen. You can include your own photo here if you want people to know what you look like but mostly people use comical images of something that represents them
For example choosing Batgirl as a name along with a batgirl picture or a picture of a bat. To post it to the website will normally involve set instructions or you would use basic html code to do this.
Public Chatrooms and IRC Channels may seem a little intimidating at first. People are either ignoring you or saying hello left, right and center. It may look like they are speaking a foreign language which they are - Chatters Jargon".
Sometimes it is difficult to keep up with a number of conversations if you don't read and type fast! When you first enter a chat room or an IRC Channel you should perhaps just listen for a while (or "read" as the case may be") before speaking (or "typing").
When you feel game enough to speak saying a nice greeting to everyone is the best way to catch someone's attention. If that doesn't work usually it's best to address someone with a question. If you want to talk to someone specific you have to type their 'username' before your message so they know you are talking to them.
Try not to get peoples attention by typing in capitals or editing your font size it's considered yelling and bad netiquette. You can change the color to make your messages more unique and personalized. The IRC chat programs and some web based programs will not allow you to edit the font.
To cut down time on typing, many people have started using abbreviations for various actions like ROFL means Rolling On The Floor Laughing. And to give some emoticon to the text people have started using actions or Emoticons like :-) means "Smile, I'm joking".
Many of the Emoticons and Acronyms used in chats have pretty much become universal and used in Newsgroups and Email Message. They are a lot of fun. You can try this SOFWeb's list of Emoticons & Acronyms. In a lot of web based chat programs you are also able to post links or email addresses.
Chat Etiquette;
Common Courtesies
There are a few common courtesies to follow when in chats.
• Respect others privacy. Don't spy on others in different chat rooms. It's just like in real life when someone needs to talk to someone in private.
• Be kind to chat room newcomers. You will know what it was like, bit unsure of what to do or say. Be friendly and welcome them into the chat room.
• Don't write really long or big messages. A lot of chatters do not like scrolling down a lot just to see a few messages after yours. If you do have to type a long message to another person either send it private or send them an email.
Just as you meet people in the real world, you can make friends in the virtual world. Some people have even met their future husbands and wives through chat, but there are a few things you should be aware of. People can, and do, pretend to me anything they want on the Internet, so you have no real guarantees that your cyberfriend is who they say they are.
If you decide you would like to meet in real life someone you have met on the Internet, you need to be cautious. If you are a student you should talk this over with your parents and/or teachers to decide whether this is a good idea. Under no circumstances should you give anyone your personal details (home address, telephone number, school) over the Internet without permission from your parents or teacher.
Dealing with Offensive Behavior
People tend to be a lot braver online than in person and a lot braver can mean being more aggressive or just stupid. If you have a disagreement with someone or someone has just picked you out of the crowd (flamed you) usually the best thing to do is just ignore them, they'll get bored if you don't bite.
Some chats even have an ignore option so you can just turn this person off. If the person is persistent report them to the webmaster of the chat. A lot of chats have monitors in the rooms that will either warn them or kick them out.
The term e-commerce is used to describe the encrypted transactions on the Internet. E-commerce is the activity of sale and purchase of products/services by consumers/businessman by using the Internet. These transactions are real-time transfer of funds in between the seller and purchaser sometimes, sometimes these are manually.
Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) is defined as the conduct of a financial transaction by electronic means. With the growth of commerce on the Internet and the Web, e-commerce often refers to purchases from online stores via the Web, otherwise knows as e-commerce Web sites. They may also be referred to as "virtual-stores". Shopping may be referred to as "Cyber Shopping".
Nowadays, sales on Internet are increasing very rapidly as people getting more knowledge about the retail prices of the products introduced by wholesalers in the market. This trend is set to strengthen as web sites address consumer security and privacy concerns. Using e-commerce you can also pay the bills. This is much faster to pay your bill electronically then the traditional method “standing in long queues”.
This is also cheaper and faster to pay bills online than the paying bill according to the procedure discussed previously.
Money and time saving: - You can pay you bills from anywhere and from any computer after once enter your account information. You can pay you bills from home and from work place or even while you would be traveling. Batter Money management: - If you pay your bills online there is no need to enter the transaction in your cheques book every time because your balance will be calculated simultaneously at the time of payment of bill and save into your data.
If you forgot your balance you can easily check your balance by accessing your website any time anywhere.
The advantages of an E-Commerce Web site:
• Your store is open for business 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.
• You have access to one of the most rapidly growing markets.
• You can increase your sales with little or no extra time from you.
• You can give yourself a competitive edge over your competitors.
• You can gain new customers locally and worldwide and make it easy for existing customers to return to you.
• Your customers have access to your store from the comfort of their own home any time they are ready to shop.
• Allows you equal opportunity to compete globally with the retail giants.
Education offered using electronic delivery methods such as CD-ROMs, video conferencing, websites and e-mail, often used in distance-learning programmes. At the e-Learning Centre you will find a large collection of selected and reviewed links to e-learning resources. These are categorized into 5 main sections:
1. Library: Links to selected and reviewed articles, white papers, research reports, journal articles and resource collections in the wide field of e-learning.
2. Showcase: Links to examples of interesting online courses, learning materials and other e-learning solutions for business, colleges, universities as well as for general interest.
3. Products & Services: Links to e-learning products and services in 3 categories: e-Learning tools and systems; Off-the-shelf e-learning content and e-Learning service providers (content developers, consultants, etc).
4. Events: Links to conferences, workshops, seminars and short courses in the area of e-learning - both traditional, face-to-face events as well as online events.
5. Bookshop: Links to books about e-learning and online learning.
Advantages of e-Learning
• The A4 of e-Learning –
A) Anytime,
B) Any Place,
C) Any Pace,
D) Any Subject:
e-learning materials can be accessed at the most convenient time for the learning, if the course material is well constructed then learning can take place in short segments and can be customized to suit the learner's needs.
Empowerment: Students are in charge of their own learning.
Flexibility: e-learning material can be accessed in a non-sequential way, enabling students to navigate content in different ways, or obtain a global view before tackling the details of individual units.
Cost Effective: large numbers of students can have access to the same materials but can be supported by peer-to-peer or student-to-tutor support services thus reducing the cost of delivery.
Updated Content: Course content is located in one place so it can be easily updated and can provide direct links to supporting materials such as Internet and library resources.
Tailored Learning: the time needed to learn a particular topic or skill is reduced or "compressed" as learning can be modified to suit the users needs and requirements. E-learning can provide a variety of learning experiences including interactive elements.
Retainable: the smaller and more relevant the learning is the easier it is to capture and remember.
Socio-inclusive: students can learn in a relatively anonymous environment without the embarrassment of failure and/or socio-cultural bias from personal contact.
• Consistent: all students get the same standardized set of materials from e-learning.
• Interactive: well constructed materials will have elements of interactivity through simulations etc. which will underpin and enforce the learning.
Collaborative: The use of groups and teams working together in collaborative learning and learner-learner interaction enforces employability skills.
Used To Track Student’s Performance: student usage of the materials can be monitored and early potential drop-out can be detected and given remedial support.
Used to make easy understanding: of concepts by offering alternative ways of visualizing materials and alternative explanations to those given in a single delivery mode such as a lecture, seminar or tutorial (for example, multimedia and hypermedia).
Used to Give immediate feedback: from online self-assessment or formative assessment particularly through multiple choice question formats.
Used for Self Assessment: students can be offered automatically-marked self-assessment exercises to identify skill/knowledge levels and learning needs before engaging with course content.
Used to support students with certain Disabilities: Access for students with hearing and some physical disabilities may be enhanced.



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