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Internet - e-Mail, Working with Internet, A-Z of Internet

Introduction to E-mail
Electronic mail, or e-mail, is probably the most popular and widely used Internet function. E-mail, email, or just mail, is a fast and efficient way to communicate with friends or colleagues. You can communicate with one person at a time or thousands; you can receive and send files and other information. You can even subscribe to electronic journals and newsletters.
You can send an e-mail message to a person in the same building or on the other side of the world.
It's very similar to our traditional mail system with post boxes, post offices, envelopes and addresses. The difference is that instead of Australia Post delivering your messages around the globe for you, messages are sent electronically to other computer users via the computer network (the internet) taking a fraction of the time to get there AND, you don't have to walk to the letter box!
Just as you can send attachments with your letters in the normal post (snail mail) you can also send computer documents, graphics, software or anything else that can be turned into a digital form attached to an email message.
An e-mail address identifies a person and the computer for purposes of exchanging electronic mail messages. The basic structure of an e-mail address is:
• username@host.subdomain.second-level-domain.first-level-domain
The Internet mail system works because of SMTP, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. SMTP is part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. SMTP is a protocol, or set of rules that enables electronic mail to move smoothly through the Internet. Because of SMTP, a UNIX machine can send mail to a PC or Macintosh computer and vice versa.
Electronic mail works on the client/server principle. A client program enables the user to interact with a server in order to access information and services on the server computer. To read and send mail, users need to access the computer where their mail resides (the server).
The client application is the interface which lets a user read, reply to, forward, compose and send new messages. Some examples of e-mail client programs are Qualcomm Eudora, pine, elm and Lotus cc: Mail.  
An electronic mail message is not limited to text. Other types of files can be added to mail messages as attachments. Attachments can be binary files such as a word processed document, a spreadsheet or a graphic image.
A standard called MIME, Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, allows for non-text files to be encoded on the sending computer and decoded on the receiving computer.
Electronic mail is a system that allows users to send and receive messages and data through the Internet. SMTP is the protocol that ensures this system of sending and receiving information works smoothly.
A client program is used to read mail, reply to mail and send new messages. Messages can contain text as well as other file types which are encoded and decoded by MIME.
How does E-mail work?
E-mail is an asynchronous form of communication, meaning that the person whom you want to read your message doesn't have to be available at the precise moment you send your message. This is a great convenience for both you and the recipient.
On the other hand, the telephone, which is a synchronous communication medium, requires that both you and your listener be on the line at the same time in order for you to communicate (unless you leave a voice message).
It will be impossible to discuss all the details of the many e-mail packages available to Internet users. Fortunately, however, most of these programs share basic functionality which allow you to:
*send and receive mail messages
*save your messages in a file
*print mail messages
*reply to mail messages
*attach a file to a mail message
In order for messages to be sent from one computer to another, your message needs to be converted into a digital form and forwarded to a computer that acts as a mail server or post office.
This mail server sorts and directs your mail for you. The only way this mail server can direct mail though, to all users is by being connected to a network that all the users are also connected to.
This network can be internal (a stand-alone network) which means you can only send email to other users on that network. If your mail server is connected to the Internet you can also send your email messages to any other computer user that is connected to the internet anywhere in the world because the internet is a network of all the little networks of organisations around the world.
This mail server can be within your organisation or with an Internet Service Provider, so you would connect to it by logging into your email account.
When you send your email message, the mail server decides whether the message is to be passed on to a user on its immediate network or it will pass it onto another mail server on another network closest to it through these combination of networks and each mail server keeps passing it on until it reaches its intended destination.
This is known as the 'store' and 'forward' system, storing your message at various points on the path to its receiver waiting for the link to be free for it to forward your message on the next part of its journey.
The digital data can be broken up and follow different paths (go through different mail servers) to gets to its destination but always meets up when it gets to the post office or mail server of the recipient. The mail will stay at the post office until the recipient decide to collect it which is done by logging into their email account.
Email Software
In order to read or send any electronic mail you will need special software. Eudora is one of the most commonly used software packages and comes in two versions. Eudora Lite can be downloaded from the Eudora website and used without charge.
Eudora Pro - a more advanced version of the software can be purchased for approximately $89 from most leading software suppliers. The Eudora website can help you locate a supplier closest to you. Eudora can be used on both IBM compatible and Macintosh computers.
Web browsers like Netscape and Explorer now have an email function also but they are not as sophisticated and reliable as Eudora.
One benefit of this type of email package is that where addresses of World Wide Web pages are given in the body of the message you can click on the address and the browser will automatically display the page. Eudora also has this ability.
If your school is connected to to the statewide VicOne network you can to the Edumail site to obtain information relating to email software available to Victorian schools. You will need your school username and password to access this site.
Email Account
 To become an email user you need to have an email account set up for you by an Internet Service Provider or your organisation. This would normally occur automatically when you get your internet connection if you're setting up your account privately.
With a school or business you would normally gain access to email by talking to your technical advisor where a user account will be set up for you. When you get your account you will be given an email address, a Username and a password which you would use to access your email.
You can obtain free email accounts through certain web sites on the internet. You check your mail through your web browser by looking at a web page, typing in your name and password.
These types of services are nowhere near as secure as having your own email software on your own computer and can be slow with delays. They are free though and provide additional services such as receiving regular news from various sites of your choosing. One such site is the Hotmail Site.
Email Address
Each email user is given an email address which distinguishes them from each other like your name and street address distinguish your house from your neighbors. Your email address is usually your Username or User ID, plus the domain name of the computer through which you normally gain access to the internet with an @ symbol in-between.. - (
As you can see here my Username is 'sofweb' and the domain name for the Department of Education, Employment and Training (where I work) is . Your Username doesn't necessarily have to be your real name it can be a variation or any name of your choosing - eg. (
Setting Up Your Email Account
After Downloading your Email Software and setting up your email account with your Internet Service Provider, you need to set the software up with details like your Username, password, email address and mail server. The Internet Service Provider will normally give you all of this information which you will need to include in the set up.
With Mac or Windows 95 you follow the prompts and include the details the provider has given you. If you are not setting your account up privately your technician should do all of this for you. With free email accounts like Hotmail you do not need to download any software and the instructions are usually simple to follow, and provided on the website.
Setting up an E-mail Account
To learn more about hotmail click on All about hotmail.
Click on New Account Signup.
Fill in your personal information which includes: Name, Language, Country, State, Zip Code, Time Zone, Gender, Birth Date, Gender, and Occupation.
Notice the drop down menu which allows you to choose one of several answers. Simply click on the down arrow and drag the mouse to the option you would like to choose and when highlighted, release the button.
Creating an Account Continued
• Username: Choose a username you would like to have your e-mail addressed to. You can use your name, birthdate, favorite hobby, number of children or grandchildren, or any combination of items.
Some usernames may already be taken so it is important to be more unique. For example, instead of you could use It may take a few tries before you create a name that is not in use.
• Password: Make the password something you can remember. An address, birthdate, hobby, color, or object that you will remember work well.
Secret Question: If you forget your password, you will be asked the secret question of your choice.
Secret Answer: Select a question you will always know the answer to.
Registration Check: Type in the letters and/or numbers you see in the box. This step prevents companies from e-mailing unwanted solicitations to hotmail account holders.
Agree to Terms of Service: Agree to follow the terms of service by clicking on the box. After clicking on the "I Agree" button, you will be taken to the next screen
Accessing Your Account
Anytime you would like to access your e-mail account go to• Type in your and password and click Sign In.
• If you are using a private computer and would like the computer to sign you in automatically, click the box under password.
• If you are using a public computer, click the box under sign in to keep your e-mail address and password private.
What to Expect From Your E-mail Account
You will be able to keep in contact with friends and family all over the world at the click of a mouse. You will also be subject to junk mail.
• Junk mail is unsolicited e-mail from companies.
• Junk mail can usually be identified by the name of the sender which is identified under the from column.
• For instance, any weird name found in the From column (for example, anne909tk435) will most likely be junk mail.
• Well-known companies may also send you junk mail.
• However, you have the option of what to do with junk mail. You will learn how to delete junk mail in a following lesson.
• Hotmail has special controls to limit the amount of junk mail able to enter your e-mail account.
Changing Your Password
For security purposes, you may need to change your password from time to time. You can do this by clicking the Options link, which is written in white letters and located in the top right corner of your Inbox.
Next you will reach a page called Mail Options. In a left-hand column, you will see several options. Click once on Personal, the first choice listed to the left.
Changing Your Password Continued
After clicking on the Personal button, you will reach a page titled Personal Options.
Under the Personal Options header, click on Password, written in blue letters. Next, fill in your old password and enter a new password. Click continue.
Sending & Receiving E-mail
Email messages are often less formal than letters and can sometimes be as short as one single word. Because it is treated more casually than a formal letter sometimes people aren't as careful with what they say in an email message
Anatomy of an Email Message
Recipients Name & Address
You can't send email without having the other person's full email address. Without it its like mailing an envelope without any address on it. Just as you would put the person's name and address on the envelope, you would put their email address, comprised of their Username and domain name, on the email message. You can include their real name in the message also.
You may be able to find an Gmail users email address at the
Most email packages allow you to set up an email address book so that you only need to click on the person you would like to send the message to once you have put them in your book. All you need to do is use the automatic addressing feature to transfer the address to your new message.
As you would normally put your return name and address on the back of an envelope so the message can be returned to you if there is a problem - you can include this on your email software when you set it up so it does the same with the email messages you send.
If you type in the subject, this subject header will show up on their email program so that they get an idea of what your message is about - you can type in Urgent! to let the recipient know to open it right away.
Time & Date
The email program automatically puts in the time, the date.
Main Body
This is where you type the main body of your message.
Documents can also be attasched to email messages. To attach a document or other type of digital file to an outgoing emssage, select Attach File from the Message menu.. A standard dialogue box will be displayed. Slect the document you want to send and click OK. The location of the file will appear after the Attachments: field of the header. When the message is sent the attachment will be located and sent also.
Receiving Attachments - Select the directory or folder you want the attachments to be saved to. You can do this by going to Settings menu, then clicking of Attachments, followed by the box under Attachemnt Directory. Select a directory/folder for your attachments to be saved into. If you do not select a specific directory, incoming attachments will be saved into the Eudora directory.
BEWARE!! When you are sending attachments please ensure that the person you are sending to will be able to "read" (open) the file. Check to find out if they have the corrrect software and the correct version of that software. If in doubt save word processor documents as .rtf - most word processors can read this type of file, although you may lose some formatting in the process.
CC (carbon copy)
You can forward a copy of your message to the user you include here. All you need to do is include their email address in this section.
CC (blind carbon copy)
This field allows you to send to send a copy of a message to someone else without the original recipient knowing.
Checking for Email
To check if there is any new mail you have to login to your email software with your account. To do that you open the software, your Username will automatically come up and your password will be requested. After you type in your password your email program will connect to your mailbox at your post office to see if there is any mail waiting for you.
If there is it will download the messages to your computer and tell you you have new mail. You click on OK, and then just click on the new messages that you have to open them. You can tell they are new by the unopened markers next to them.
If you want to make the best use of email make sure to check regularly for incoming mail and reply as soon as possible. The benefit of email is its ease of use in sending, receiving AND replying promptly.
Remote Access
You don't have to use the same computer to access your email, you can access it remotely from other computers as long as the computer has email software and you know the domain name of your mail server and your user details.
Reply Command
The email program has an automatic reply command, which will instruct it to prepare an email reply to go to the sender of the email. The program automatically insert the senders email address, and by default the same subject header. You have the option of including the original text in the message when you reply so that you can refer to points in it.
Bounced Email
Occasionally you will get email returned to you that has "bounced", this happens if you type the address incorrectly or the user has cancelled their account. It will be returned to you with an error message telling you why it couldn't be delivered like - "this message could not be delivered as there was no email account or mail box for this person". It is very important to get the address exactly right including all underscores and full stops.
Email In The Classroom
Electronic Mail in the classroom is an exciting adventure for both students and teachers. Some of the benefits of using electronic mail include:
• Students are writing messages for a purpose and a real audience
• Increased focus on literacy
• Increased motivation
• Co-operative team work
• Less emphasis on teacher-directed learning
• Improved research skills
• Increased communications
• Provides stimulus for students to learn about other cultures
• Increased comprehension, hand-eye coordination and typing skills
There are many fun and educational projects can be joined through the Global Classroom Project site.
Email Lists
What is an e-mail discussion list?
An electronic mail list is simply a discussion group which operates via electronic mail. In its simplest form an e-mail list can be a small number of people who send mail backwards and forwards to each other, possibly a professional group, or people with a particular interest in common.
Imagine that at one stage this group of people decided to formalise things a bit, and appointed one person to operate as the maintainer of the discussion. One way of doing this would be for that person to maintain the list of e-mail addresses of the other members.
Then each member of the list who wanted to join in the discussion would forward their message to that one person, who would then distribute it to everyone else.
This would work quite well if there were only a small number of participants, but what if the discussion was so interesting that lots of people wanted to join in? It would become a lot of work for the person who was running the list.
In order to make life simpler for the person who runs the list (the list owner), there are several kinds of software which automate the running of an e-mail list, including enrolling new members (subscribing), removing members (un-subscribing), changing mail preferences and distributing the messages.
There are several different kinds of software which do this, one of the most common is known as Listserv software, so you will often see e-mail discussion lists called Listservs, after this software. However there are other kinds, including Majordomo. All of this list software operates in a similar fashion, so once you have learned how one kind works, it is easy to learn the others if you need to.
How does a list work?
Simply, once you have subscribed to the list (see below), all you need to do is send your mail message to the list's address and your message will be automatically distributed to every other member of the list.
Why would I join one?
Electronic mail lists are an excellent way of participating in discussions with people who share an interest in your particular subject area. They are a good way of keeping up with the latest developments in your field by belonging to a network of people all over the world who are working in your area.
You can share ideas or concerns, ask questions, find out about research, conferences or professional development activities and discover what is going on in other regions, states or countries
Electronic mail is a relatively low cost form of communication and e-mail lists are free. It costs you nothing except your dial-up time to subscribe and participate. The only cost you might find is in time, if you join a high volume mail list, or find yourself participating in a lot of discussions!
For people who may be isolated from other professional networks because of distance, or for any other reason, electronic mail lists are an excellent way of remaining in touch with your colleagues, researchers in your field and other interested people.
Where do I find a list?
There are tens of thousands of e-mail lists in the world covering a huge variety of subjects. If you are looking for a list in a particular subject area here are some places to look. PAML, (Publicly Accessible Mail Lists) at: has possibly one of the most comprehensive lists of electronic discussion lists on the web. Another place to look is LIZST at: where you can search more than 66, 000 lists for one that interests you.
How do I join a list?
Once you have found a list you need to let the list know that you want to join in the discussion by subscribing to the list. You do this by sending a subscription message (request to join the list) to the list address. The subscription message will vary depending on which list administration software is being used.
Here is a table of the subscription messages for the major list administration software.
Package Command
LISTSERV subscribe listname yourfirstname yourlastname
LISTPROC subscribe listname yourfirstname yourlastname
MAILBASE join listname yourfirstname yourlastname
MAJORDOMO subscribe listname
Depending on the list you will get a message back, either letting you know that you are subscribed to the list, or that your subscription to the list has gone to the list owner for approval. Some lists are moderated or closed lists, which means that the list is open only to a particular group of people, or that all messages sent to the list need to be approved by the list owner before they circulate to other members.
Note that most lists are publicly accessible, so that all you need to do is send your subscription message in order to be allowed to join.
All e-mail lists have two addresses. One address is that of the automatic list software (for example listserv or majordomo), the other is the address to which you send your messages when you want to participate in the discussion.
The first address will have the name of the e-mail software as the first element, (the bit before the @). The second address has the same element after the @ as the first address, but the bit before the @ is the name of the list. So if we invent a listserv called list-l, which is held at an address called, the two addresses would be: and The first address is where you send your subscription detail, the second address is where you can send your messages to join in the discussion.
An easy way to sort this out is to think of the e-mail list as a club you want to join. Most clubs will have a secretary who is responsible for such things as requests to join, membership subscriptions, changes of address and other administrative details. This is the equivalent of the first address (
However, if you wanted to submit an article to the club's newsletter you wouldn't send it to the secretary, you'd send it to the person responsible for that particular activity, possibly the newsletter editor. This is the equivalent of the second address (called the list address), the one where you send your thoughts, comments, information and questions.
It is important that you are sure of the difference between the two addresses because if you try and send a question to the majordomo address you will simply get an error message back, while if you send a query about your subscription to the list address you won't get any action.
One important thing to remember about subscribing to a list is that in order to use the list, you need to send any messages, to either address, from the original e-mail address you subscribed from. It is the equivalent of having the club's newsletter sent to your home address, if you move and don't let the secretary know you have changed addresses, you will no longer get your mail.
So if you change e-mail addresses you will have to unsubscribe from the list using your old address and resubscribe using your new address. If you send a message to the list and get a reply saying that you are no longer subscribed to the list, check to make sure that you are sending your message from the e-mail address you used to subscribe.
What other things do I need to know?
There are other commands you can send to the majordomo which can be very useful to know. One of the most useful, and the easiest to remember is the word HELP. If you send a message to you majordomo address with just this in the body of your message you will receive a list of the commands that majordomo recognises, including instructions for subscribing and unsubscribing.
But remember that their is more to e-mail than just joining a list, you need to remember that there are real people on the other end of the list. This is where Netiquette is important.
Style Guide for Email
Because e-mail is fast and easy to use, there is a tendency to write before you think. In order to make and keep friends using e-mail it is a good idea to learn about Netiquette, but it is also important to learn a few e-mail style guidelines which will make your messages welcome in the mail boxes of your correspondents.
• Most e-mail programs are strictly text only, and use only the letters, numbers and keyboard punctuation marks, without any of the formatting you are used to being able to use in word-processing.
• Keep it short. Unformatted text is not particularly easy to read on screen, so your chances of someone reading your whole message are better if you keep it as concise as possible. The length of a message might not seem important if you don't get much mail, but for people who receive a lot of e-mail there may not be time to read long messages.
• If you need to write a longer message, flag it in the subject line of the message, ie "Why the Cat in the Hat Came Back (long)". This way people know that it's a long message and can decide whether they have time to read it immediately.
• Always use a subject line and try and make it as relevant as possible to your message. This is the first part of the message anyone sees when they open their e-mail program and many people choose whether or not to read the message on the basis of the subject line.
• A whole screen of text is not easy to read either, so try and break your message up into short paragraphs with breaks in between. White space makes text easier to read.
• For much the same reasons don't use all capitals in a message. In the culture of cyberspace, messages written in all capitals are seen as shouting. This is because a message composed entirely of capital letters is uncomfortable to read. It's okay though to use all capitals IF YOU WANT TO EMPHASIZE SOMETHING, as long as it's not a whole message.
• There are other ways of creating emphasis. You can use *.* to indicate italics. This can be *very useful*.
• If you want to underline you can use underscores _. For example if you wanted to underline the title of a book, _The Cat in the Hat_.
• Keep your line length shorter than 80 characters and preferably no longer than 60 characters. Otherwise when your message is received it might break in strange places which is very irritating to read.
• If you are sending a message to a mailing list, don't start your message with a space. Some mailing lists gather a group of messages together and send them to subscribers all at once (this is called a digest). A message with a space at the beginning can cause the digest to truncate at your message.
• Always include your name and e-mail address at the bottom of your message. Some mail programs don't receive the message header which generally includes your name and e-mail address, so if they wanted to answer you they might not be able to.
• Some people have created remarkable signatures from simple ASCII text, but they tend to be quite large. Try and keep your signature file to no more than four lines. Some people have to pay for their e-mail by the amount they download, so it is considerate to save message size by keeping your signature short.
Emoticons & Acronyms
There are many ways of adding personality and meaning to your e-mail message, these are known as emoticons and acronyms. There are lots of them, but the most common are the ones to indicate humour. There is the smiley face :-) (try looking at it sideways), the grin, and the very big grin . Try some of these in your messages.
Words Meaning Words Meaning
FOFL Fall on the floor laughing IRL In real life
LOL; Laugh out loud YMMV Your mileage may vary
ROTFL Roll on the floor laughing ITRW In the real world
TTFN Ta ta for now BTW By the way
Grin Grin, joking BG Big grin
VBG Very big grin; RTFM Read the flaming manual
TIA Thanks in advance IMHO In my humble opinion
IMNSHO In my not so humble opinion IOW In other words
Symbol Used for Symbol Used for
:-); Smile, "I'm joking" :-( Frown, "I'm not happy"
:) Smiley for lazy typists :( Frown for lazy typists
;-) Wink, a sly grin :-O Shocked
* Kiss { } [ ] Hugs
{{{***}}} Hugs and kisses :-P Sticking out your tongue
:,-( Crying :-| Can't decide how to feel
Working with Internet
File Download
The internet is full of sights to see and things to do like listen to sounds, view movies, play interactive educational games and transfer applications to your own computer like virus checkers, drawing programs, screen capturing programs and much more.
In order to get and run these files you need to learn how to download and set them up on your own computer. Downloading refers to the actual transferring of the document from the internet to your own computer.
Before You Start Downloading
Know Your System
Firstly you must make sure that you know what type of software is appropriate for your computer. That is you must know the specifications of your computer. Things like whether you are using a Personal Computer (PC) or a Mac (Macintosh) and if you are using a PC whether you are using Windows 3.1, Windows 95 or Windows NT as your operating system.
You also need to know how much memory you have and whether the machine is a 486 or pentium if it is a PC. The type of computer, the operating system and specifications of your computer dictate what type of programs you can run on your computer.
You may not have the capacity to run certain software or the software may not be available for the platform you are using and downloading it can be a complete waste of time.
Set up a separate download directory
Setting up a separate download directory to store your downloaded files into is so they don't get mixed up with any other programs/files on your system, and so you always know where you can find them should you have to reinstall or find the files at a later date.
Normally with software you receive on a disk the separate directory is the files on the disk and the file runs through it setup functions and creates a directory where the program will sit. By creating this download directory you are saving a lot of clean up time later.
. Most files you download will also be in a compressed format and when uncompressed will explode into many other files. By separating them you are able to clean up your file directories at a later stage with greater ease.
If you are using Windows 95 you have the ability to create a new directory immediately to store the file in otherwise store them all in a download directory. You could create sub directories like that below.
saveas.gif - 5k
File Extensions
Look at the file extension of the file you want to download Files like this one you are reading - download.htm have two parts separated by the (.). The name of the file refers to the first part, the file extension refers to the second part.
The file extension is usually three letters and can be used to identify the type of file that it is. In this example download.htm means it is a hypertext markup language document (html).
As you become more familiar with the internet and different file extensions you will be able to identify their file types and what you need to run them. A comprehensive list of file extensions and There are an amazing array of different file types around, you would probably be familiar with some more common ones such as word.doc and word.txt. Word.doc is a word document and word.txt is a plain text document.
Compressed Files
Compressed files are a way of storing many files into one, or making a big file smaller so by making it smaller it is quicker to download. For PC users the most common file extensions are zip files and exe files and for Macintosh users sea and hqx.
Exe and Sea files are self extracting archives, that means you don't need other software to uncompress them and when you click on them in your file managing program they will automatically either run a setup program, explode into a larger file or explode into several files.
. All files can be compressed into these formats including all your sounds movies and programs to run them.
For Zip and Hqx files you will need other programs to decompress/unzip/expand them. For PC users winzip is the most popular and for Mac users stuffit expander.
Once you have this additional software you will be able to uncompress the files just by clicking on them in your file managing software. They will decompress onto your computer in the same manner as the exe and sea files.
The Different forms of Downloading
Downloading technically means the transfer of one file on one computer to another computer. This can take several different forms when you are downloading using the internet.
You can save individual web pages or images on a web page which are transferred in an instant or you can transfer whole programs and files by clicking on a link in a web page and the timing will depend on the size of the file.
Saving A Web Page
With simple files like this web page you are reading you can save just by clicking on File on the menu bar of your browser, then clicking on Save As.
saveas2.GIF - 4.5 K
In the save as type menu you will have two options, either to save it as html file or a text file. If you want to save the html code that is used in it or only wish to ever read the file in a web browser save it as a html file. If you want to read the file in any text based programs like Microsoft Word save it as text. This will mean that you don't have to sift through the code that comes with all hypertext documents. If you are using Microsoft Word 97 with HTML options installed you will not have this problem.
All of the images on the web page will need to be saved individually if you wish to view the entire document, images included on your own computer. You will also need to store the images in the same directory that the images are stored in (or change the code). Getting confused? It's pretty simple.
For this particular document I have stored all the images in a separate directory called images and when I have inserted them into the web page with html code I have told the browser that all of these images are in an images directory. You can view the source code by clicking on the view button on your button and clicking on source code or look at the sample below.
Here you can see that the saveas.gif file is saved in an images directory. Now all you have to do is create a subdirectory for this page, call it images and save all the images individually into that directory. When you open this page up from your own computer all images will be intact and the file will be viewed as normal.
images.GIF - 3.9 K
With HTML files that are in frames, you will either need to click on the particular frame that you wish to save and save it or you will need to collect all the frames by clicking in each frame and then also saving the main frame which is the document if you would like the entire page. Sometimes this can get a little messy and confusing, it might be easier just to do a screen capture of the web page.
Downloading A File Through Your Web Browser
The following instructions are based on downloading a file using the Netscape browser. Most web browsers operate in a similar manner so the basic concepts can be used for all browsers.
When you click on the link for a file that you want to download a box similar to the one below will come up.
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The browser is stating that the file that I am downloading is of a pdf format - see application/pdf. The browser doesn't recognise this file so it is asking for you to either pick an application to run it or whether we want to save it and work out what application we will use to run it later.
As a beginner, always save the file unless you are very familiar with the file extension and know what program will run it.. There is nothing more annoying than picking the wrong application, waiting for it to download and then finding the wrong program has been chosen and having to download the file again.
A box like that below will come up if you click on Save The File. This is where your separate directory comes in handy. If you are using windows 95 you have the ability to create a new directory immediately to store the file in.
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Using The File
This all depends on the type of file that you have downloaded and its file extension. For example if you have downloaded a file to be used in another application like a movie or sound file, you may be able to use it immediately after downloading with your movie or sound player by opening up the application that you would use to play the file and then locating where you have downloaded the file to and playing it in the application.
For instance if you downloaded a file called sing.wav you could tell that this is a wav sound file that can be played in any sound player. Sometimes though you will need to uncompress files before you can use them. As you become more familiar with the different file extensions it will become easier to know what you can and need to do for each file you download.
Sometimes a file may be so big that it has been compressed so that it is quicker to download . If the file is a compressed file in the Exe, Zip, Sea or Hqx formats it will need to be uncompressed before you can use it. Remember to store it in a download directory so you can locate it easily.  
Exe files and Sea files can be uncompressed by clicking on them either in File Manager/Windows Explorer or on the Mac Desktop. Zip and Hqx files require other software to be installed firstly before they can be uncompressed. When you uncompress the file another file should pop out of it.
For PC users remember to refresh your File Manager after decompressing if you can't see the file immediately. (This is the F5 function key). The file that pops out is the file that you will use when you open up your application like a sound player and locate the file to play it.
If the file that you have downloaded is a program/application file like a new web browser or a movie player, after clicking on it, it may decompress and commence a set up program which you would follow the instructions as you would normally installing any new software from a disk or cd.
But it may initially uncompress with the installation file popping out of it (usually called setup.exe or install.exe) which you then just need to click on to start the installation process. If you are unsure of which file is the setup/installation file there will also normally be a text file that explains how to install the program.
This is the time where having separate download directories come in very handy. Imagine downloading some software called that you have saved into your download directory, sub directory jelly, you click on it in explorer, out pops setup.exe a few read me files and a couple of extra files the program needs to use to install.
You then click on the setup.exe, the installation process commences, it creates a program in your programs files automatically. You can now return to your download directory and delete all the files in the jelly directory because they are only taking up space. The program files that are needed are all set up in a different directory and are safe.
Plugins & Helper Applications
As the range of materials on the web gets more complex and exciting it sometimes is necessary to add special add-on programs to the software on your computer. There are two basic types, plugins and players/helper applications.
A plugin is a piece of software or a program that operates within the web browser like the shockwave movie player and a player/helper application normally operates outside the browser like the Netoob movie player.
Some plugins can also be helper applications like real audio, real video or adobe acrobat where you could play the file within your web browser or as a stand alone application without being connected to the internet.
With the latest versions of Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator you will have much of what you'll need to enjoy multimedia formats on the web like sound and video but occasionally you will across a file that won't work unless you get the appropriate plugin or player/helper application.
If you don't have the appropriate plugin or helper application, when you click on the link you will get a message letting you know that you need to take a few minutes to download the tool or software before you can have any fun.
This isn't really difficult to do. On most occasions your browser will also direct you to the web page of the program you need to get, and you just follow the links until you get to a download option, click on download and save it to your computer.
With Netscape you can view the plugins that you have installed by clicking on the Help button and then clicking on about plugins. To view helper applications with Netscape, click on Options, General Preferences and then Helpers.
Setting Up Helper Applications
When you click on a hyperlink of a file your browser doesn't recognise it will give you the option to either save the file or pick an application to run the program with.
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Most times your browser will recognise the files that you have plugins or helper applications and run them automatically but sometimes it doesn't and you have to set them up manually. This will mean that whenever you come across that type of file the helper application will automatically load up.
The most important concept to understand when setting up helper applications is the concept of MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions). MIME is a standardized method for organizing different file formats. The method organizes file formats according to the file's MIME type.
. When your browser retrieves a file from a server, the server provides the MIME type of the file. The browser uses the MIME type to establish whether the file format can be read by the software's built-in capabilities or, if not, whether a suitable helper application is available to read the file.
For Netscape users you can view and configure the mapping of all MIME types to helper applications by clicking on Options, then General Preferences, then Helpers. The following screen should come up
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From here you only need to click on the format, for example real audio and all files with the extension of ra rm and ram, click on launch the application and then associate the application by finding the executable file on your computer by using the browse button. For ra, rm and ram files it would be the Real Video Player application file in the Real Video Directory - rvplayer.exe.
Freeware & Shareware
Freeware are fully working models of products that you do not have to pay for but can not alter in anyway or sell or relabel, as the author of the program retains all rights to the program and just allowed you to copy and use it without paying.
With Shareware the author again retains all rights to the product but this is more of a testing stage. You are usually allowed to use the product for a limited time, limited access or limited abilities of the product.
They normally expire after 30 days if you do not register and pay the fee. Most software of this sort is around the $50.00 mark. This type of software is the most common. One other type of software is public domain software which allows you to relabel it, copy it, do virtually anything you like to it.
Images on the Web
Images on the web will come in two file formats, JPEG or GIF.
JPEG Images
A JPEG file stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group and all images under this format has the file extension of .JPG. You would use a JPEG image for photographs, realistic scenes, or other images with subtle changes in tone.
The JPEG file format is not good for images which have sharp lines or lettering, they have a tendency to get blurred. JPEG original files should never be erased as each time you save a JPEG image the image will deteriorate more and more. You should always go back to the original
Gif stands for Graphic Interchange Format. All images under this format have the file extension of .GIF. This format is the most commonly used image format on the web and includes features that enable background transparency.
Saving Images From The Web
There are many images on the web that you can use in your own web pages, presentations, documents and papers. You can save these images individually to your own computer Create a separate directory for all your images and call it something like Download and then create a subdirectory called Images. This way you know where to find all the images that you have downloaded from the web. You could even subdivide the images directory up into categories to make each of your images even easier to locate.
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In order to save the woman dancing image on the left, put your mouse over the image. If you are using Netscape on a PC click your right mouse button , for Macintosh users hold your mouse button down. If you are using Explorer just place your mouse over the image for Macintosh & PC users and give it a couple of seconds. While your mouse is over the image a menu like the one below will come up.
You can see that one of the options is SAVE IMAGE AS. All you need to do is click on this option and save the image to your computer in your special directory.
Making Screen Captures Of Web Pages
Screen Capture involve as the name suggests capturing the image of the entire screen or a particular portion of the screen that you select. For entire screen captures Windows 95 users can press the print screen button on their keyboard.
This copies the entire screen to the clipboard. You only need to paste it into the application of your choosing. If you are not using Windows 95 or would like to do partial screen captures you can download a program like Paintshop Pro.
Download and save this program to your special Download directory under Programs, and then follow the instructions within the file to set it up on your computer. For more help with this see the Download Section of these materials. The following instructions are based upon the 32 bit version of Paintshop Pro, other packages and the 16 bit version for Windows 3.1 users operate in a very similar manner. Once you understand the concepts you can use most screen capturing software.
After you open the software click on Capture on the Menu bar and then click on Setup with your mouse.
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The setup menu will bring up a box like this one.
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In the Capture section you are mainly interested in the two top options. Area and Full Screen. If you have Full Screen ticked, the program will capture the entire screen of your computer including all menu bars and everything it can see. If you select Area, you will then mark the Area that you wish to capture.
The Activate Capture Using section lets you choose which button will be the trigger for the capturing process. It is set on a right mouse click here but you can change it to be any of your function keys, like F11 for example. You might want to do this so you don't get confused with right mouse clicks for saving individual images. Once your options are set you can click on capture now. In future when you use your software you only need to click on Capture and Start to start doing captures.
Once you do this, the Paint Shop Pro Program will hide itself from view so you can start capturing what is on your screen because you need to be able to see the image or page that you wish to capture so this has to be foremost on the screen. When you have this on your screen, hit the trigger key to start capturing (F11 if you changed this). A cross will come up on screen.
Position this cross at the corner of where you wish to start your area screen capture. When you are positioned, click your left mouse button once, let go and start moving your mouse over the area you wish to capture. As you move your mouse you will see an outline line of the area in white and measurements changing as you enlarge or reduce the capture.
. When you have the entire area covered click your mouse button again. You will be returned to the Paint Shop Pro program and the area you have captured will also be there.
You will see that Paint Shop Pro has saved the area that you marked for saving. It has also given the file a temporary name of Image1.* You will need to give the file a correct name by clicking on File then Save or Save As.
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To capture the entire screen change your Capture options to Full Screen and then click on capture now. Your entire screen will be captured using the same process as saving a selection. Remember you will get everything in there including the buttons and menus around the page. You can crop this image afterwards to get rid of these things by clicking on the Selection Button.Then with your mouse highlight the area you would like to keep.
So start at the corner, click your left mouse button, hold it down and drag your mouse to the end of what you would like to keep, then let go of the mouse button and that area will be enclosed in a rectangle. Now that you have this area highlighted, click on the Menu option Image and then Crop Now. Everything except the area you have highlighted will disappear..
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Download and save this program to your special Download directory under Programs, and then follow the instructions within the file to set it up on your computer. For more help with this see the Download Section of these materials;
The following instructions are based upon the 32 bit version of Paintshop Pro, other packages and the 16 bit version for Windows 3.1 users operate in a very similar manner. Once you understand the concepts you can use most screen capturing software.
After you open the software click on Capture on the Menu bar and then click on Setup with your mouse.
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Finding Images On The Web
Where do you find images? There are lots of collections of free ClipArt available on the web. Just to get you started here are some places you can go to get buttons, backgrounds, icons and images for your web page. If you are not sure how to save them Read the Saving Images information first.
FUNET Collection of images, from animals to the Zodiac.
Making Your Own Graphics
Graphics software will allow you to create, alter and organise you graphics. You can even create animated graphics. PhotoShop for both Macintosh and PC is a powerful graphics program which you can use to create original images for your web publishing. For some tips on creating web graphics with PhotoShop,
Adding Images To Web Pages
Adding graphics, including ClipArt, photographs and backgrounds to your WWW page can not only make it more attractive, but can make it easier to use. For example, you could use symbols or colours to help people navigate your page or site. However you need to keep in mind that while some graphical interest is good, the graphics should neither overwhelm the content of your page, nor make it difficult to read or explore.
If you use graphics on your web site try and make them AS SMALL AS POSSIBLE. A good guide is to keep the total for all graphics under about 30 Kb per HTML page. Use JPEG for photographic images (use the most compression possible), and GIF for computer artwork, drawings etc.
You also need to remember that many people, because of limitations of time, cost or software, either don't see, or choose to turn off images. Your web page needs to be designed so that the maximum number of people can view it adequately, which means that you need to make sure that your images aren't so big that the page takes forever to download (20k is about the maximum size).
If you use graphics as a navigation device make sure that you include ALT references (where you give a text description as part of the image direction).
Picture of a Snake
<IMG SRC="IMAGES/SNAKE.JPG" ALT="Picture of a Snake">
The information within the quotation marks is the path of the image or where the image can be located. These quotation marks around the path of the image file are important and if left off will leave you with a broken image symbol like this . You will also get a broken image if the path name is incorrect or the filename of the image is incorrect. All images should be kept in a separate directory from your HTML files. Most Webstes store images in sub-directories and title it images or gif and jpeg for each type of image.
A-Z of Internet
A-Z of Internet
The telephone number dialed by the modem that lets a computer communicate with an online service or Internet Service Provider.
ANONYMOUS FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
A service available at some Internet sites that gives any user access to data files and applications using FTP. With anonymous FTP, users don't need a special password to retrieve files.
Generally nowadays your web browser will handle FTP for you, but if you need to do FTP with via Telnet or a specialist FTP program, your user name for anonymous FTP will probably be anonymous and if you are asked for a password, unless the computer tells you otherwise, use your full e-mail address.
Software that monitors a computer for viruses and eliminates them before damage occurs.
ARPANet (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network)
Considered the beginning of the Internet. A worldwide network created in the 1960's that was maintained by the U.S. Department of Defense to facilitate communications between research facilities and universities. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) This code maps letters and other symbols, like periods and commas, to numbers that your computer can understand.
The capacity of the various cables connecting the Internet. It can mean not just the amount of data that can be sent, but also the speed.
Bulletin Board System. A dial-in service that usually provides information, software, and technical support on a focused topic. Bulletin Boards are to some extent now superseded by newsgroups, e-mail lists and web based discussion lists.
Binary Digit. The smallest unit of data a computer can handle. Each "bit" has a value of 1 or 0 that the computer interprets as "on" or "off" respectively.
On the Netscape tool bar you will see a menu button BOOKMARKS. This allows you to mark the address (URL) of sources you find useful so that you can return to them easily. To add another site to your list simply choose the Add Bookmark option from the Bookmark menu. The View Bookmarks menu item produces a dialogue box that lets you edit and organise your bookmarks file.
A common system of logic that uses operators such as AND, OR, and NOT. For example, a search for "cat and dog" would find files which included both terms. A search for "cat or dog" would find files which included either or both terms. Searching for "cat not dog" would exclude those files which had the term "dog".Boolean logic is worth understanding because most searchable databases (including Internet search engines) will use a version of it. Using Boolean logic can help you create very precise search strategies and maximise the efficiency of your search time.
Bits Per Second. Measurement of the speed at which data can be transmitted over a telephone or network line.
Equal to either 7 or 8 bits, depending on whether it requires an extra bit, called a parity bit, for error correction. A byte stores a single character of information such as the letter A.
Live communication over the Internet Relay Chat service or web based chat. Unlike other forms of Internet communication, chat happens in "real time", so that you can "talk" to each other via a keyboard with the immediacy of a conversation. Using IRC many people from all over the world can "talk" to each other.
In general the publicly accessible chat rooms are not suitable for students, but there is software which can allow students to communicate in this way both safely and with considerable educational benefit. For more information about chat, see What is Internet Chat?.
A relationship between programs running on separate machine in a computer network. The server is the provider of services, while the client is the user of the services.
Cyberspace is a term invented by the very hip author William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer. Cyberspace is that place where computer users and computers interact with the network. It is both "out there" and "in here", a reality of cables and computers, but also a place where the weird world of on-line culture happens.
A process that transforms information into random streams of bits to create a secret code for data security.
This is the means of connecting to another computer using a modem and an ordinary telephone line.
The unique name that identifies an Internet site. A domain also identifies the area of the Internet which a site belongs, i.e. commercial (.com); government (.gov); education (.edu); military (.mil); and non-profit organisation (.org).
Downloading enables you to move files from one computer to another. It can mean copying files from your computer onto a floppy disk, or from a remote computer to your computer.
E-mail lists are also know as electronic discussion groups, listservs or electronic conferences. An electronic message forwarded to the listserv (software which automatically maintains the list, short for list server) is electronically copied and distributed to each of the group's members via e-mail.
There are thousands and thousands of electronic mailing lists on just about every imaginable topic. Membership of the lists may vary from a handful of people to thousands. For more information about e-mail, see SOFWeb's guide to Electronic Mail Lists.
E-MAIL (Electronic mail)
E-mail involves sending and receiving messages locally or worldwide from one computer to another through a network. You will need an internet account with a service provider who will provide you with an e-mail address. You will also need e-mail software, either the mail programs which come bundled with Netscape or Microsoft Internet Explorer, or a proprietary e-mail package such as Eudora.
You need an email address to enable people to email you. This address is much like your street address, it has your name (user id) and your domain (the address for the particular computer your e-mail goes to). SOFWeb's email address is
When you are using email you only have the text on your computer screen to interpret, unlike face to face communication where you have not only the words, but facial expressions, tone of voice and gestures. Because we lack this important information about mood and feeling, it is very easy to misinterpret computer based communication.
To go some way toward solving this problem the Internet community has developed a series of symbols and acronyms which you can use to add expression to your writing. These symbols are called emoticons, and are made up from the symbols on a standard keyboard. The most common one you will see is the smiley face, which indicates that you are being funny :-). Click here for more emoticons and acronyms.
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
An FAQ file is a collection of the answers to questions frequently asked by new Internet users (newbies). An FAQ might cover a particular topic, for example, netiquette, or it might relate to a particular newgroup or e-mail list. An FAQ gives you lots of useful information and it's worth checking the FAQ if you join any discussion group.
Software or hardware that limits certain kinds of access to a computer from a network or other outside source. Firewall are a security measure to prevent unauthorised access to on-line computers.
Flame bait is a deliberate attempt to either cause or continue a flame war by posting a comment which is guaranteed to create an argument. It is a fairly common event on the net, but then again, there are a lot of people out there without enough to do with their time. Flame bait is often called trolling, where someone sends a message to an e-mail list or newsgroup which is deliberately intended to start a flame war.
Software which is made publicly available for no cost at all.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. It is a standard which allows computers of all different kinds to exchange files. For everyday purposes FTP is what allows you to download software and other kinds of files from another computer to yours. See also Anonymous FTP.
GIF Graphic Interchange Format.
A bit-mapped color graphics file format that is the preferred one to use if you want to put a graphic (as opposed to a photo) on a Web page. Web browsers only recognise two image formats, GIF and JPEG (or JPG).
Approximately one billion bytes, or one thousand megabytes.
A browsing and searching protocol that lets you find and retrieve text and files. Before the WWW became so popular Gopher space was the standard way of making information available on the Internet. Gopherspace can display ASCII text, and can allow you to download image and sound files, but can't display them. ALthough there are still some Gopher servers around, in general the information which would have been available in gopherspace has migrated to the WWW. A gopher address always begins gopher://.
Add-on applications that support sound, image, and other formats that your browser can't support by itself. An example is the Acrobat Reader which allow you to read PDF files.
A home page is an initial point of entry to a web of related documents. It contains introductory information, as well as hyperlinks to related resources. A home page often contains internal navigation buttons which help users find their way among the various documents that the home page makes available. Make sure you investigate all the links on the SOFWeb home page to assist you to utilise the resources available to you.
HTML (Hypertext Markup language)
Computer language used to write World Wide Web pages. For more information about HTML, see Learning HTML
HTTP (Hypertext Terminal Protocol)
A WWW address will always begin with http://, this allows your web browser to recognise it as a WWW address.
When you are reading a book, you generally start at the beginning and go on to the end, it won't make a lot of sense if you skip backwards and forwards, but on the WWW you can skip backwards and forwards (or sideways, or anywhere else) and still make sense.
. In a WWW document there are what are called hyperlinks, they are often coloured or underlined, and clicking on one of these links will take you somewhere else,either on the same computer or sometimes to a computer anywhere else in the world. Although hypertext (hyperlinks or hot links) are an essential part of the WWW, hypertext is not unique to the web, and hypertext applications pre-dated the beginnings of the WWW.
The Internet is the combination of all the linked computer networks world wide, literally the International Network.
IP (Internet Protocol) see TCP/IP listing
ISP (Internet Service Provider)
An ISP is a company which provides access to the Internet to computer users for an agreed price. A list of "Internet Access Services available to Victorian Schools" was distributed to all schools from the Department of Education, Employment & Training in December 1995. A shorter version is also available on SOFWeb.
An object-oriented, cross-platform programming language, similar to C++, that is designed for building applications for the Internet.
JavaScript is a scripting language, introduced by Netscape. It allows you to add scripts to your web pages, which are interpreted by Netscape Navigator. JavaScript is not Java. Java is a programming language, JavaScript is more an extension to HTML and all you need to run it is your browser.
Joint Photographic Expert Group. A file format using a compression technique to reduce the size of a graphics file by as much as 96 percent. JPEG is the preferred file format to use if you want to put a photograph on a Web page.
Keywords are words which describe your topic, they can be general or specific to your topic. Make a list of possible keywords before you start a search on the Internet. For further information see the Search strategies section.
KILOBYTE A thousand bytes (actually 1024 bytes).
LAN Local-Area Network. A group of computers, usually in one building, that are physically connected in a way that lets them communicate and interact with each other.
LINK A word or phrase emphasized in a hypertext document that acts as a pointer to related information. Links in a Web browser are usually underlined and are a different color than the rest of the text.
LISTSERV Listserv is a piece of software which automates running an e-mail discussion lists. Although mailing lists are often called listservs, in fact there are several other kinds of software which perform similar functions, eg, Majordomo. For more information about e-mail lists see e-mail list.
LURKING Most people, when they join a new group or organisation, spend a bit of time working out what is going on. It's no different in cyberspace. It is considered sensible when you venture into a new email list of discussion group to spend some time reading the discussion before you join the conversation, just to get the "feel" of the group. This is called lurking. It sounds sinister but is actually good netiquette.
MAILING LIST See E-mail List
MAIL SERVER A computer that holds email messages for clients on a network. If you have an e-mail account, your e-mail goes to your service provider's mail server to be held until you are ready to download it to your computer.
MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface)
A standard that lets electronic musical devices communicate with each other. Music stored in MIDI format contains instructions for playing the music, rather than the digitized audio signal itself.
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
MIME types are extensions to attached files that tell your computer what kind of program to use to view the file.
A modem is a device used for connecting two computers via a telephone line. For more information see Getting connected.
Netiquette is the etiquette of using the Internet. Just like everywhere else, there are rules for appropriate behaviour on the Internet. These rules are designed to make life in cyberspace pleasant and comfortable for everyone. See SOFWeb's guide to Netiquette.
Nethics is ethics on the net. It is about behaving as legally and honorably in cyberspace as you would in real time. Being in cyberspace does not give you immunity from the laws of your own country, or those of the country you are visiting via computer.
NEWBIE A newbie is a new Internet user, it doesn't matter how old you are, if you are new to the net, you are a newbie.
This is the name given to publicly accessible electronic notice or bulletin boards. The term newsgroup is deceptive in that the discussions rarely involves "news", they are really topic discussion groups. For more information about newsgroups, see Newsgroups.
A secret word or code which you need together with your user id, to connect to your account, or to another computer on the Internet. It is important for security reasons to keep your password secret, you should also ensure that your passwords are not easy to guess, so don't use your own name. Passwords are important to protect the privacy of your information.
PACKETS A block of data that can be transmitted from one computer to another on a network like the Internet. A packet contains data to be transmitted, data to guide the packet, and data that corrects errors along the way.
PDF Portable Document Format
. A standard used by Adobe Acrobat to display any sort of document on any computer. The Adobe Acrobat Reader can be downloaded as freeware. For more information about PDF, see our Acrobat Reader Help Page
PICT The default graphics format on Macintoshes. Can't be viewed by web browsers.
PPP (Point to Point Protocol) see also SLIP/PPP A Protocol which enables a dial up of the Internet to be conducted over ordinary telephone lines.
A post is a message you send via email to an email list or discussion group.
A Protocol defines how computers on a network will interact with each other. The most important Protocols for the Internet are TCP/IP.
A helper application that allows you to download sound/video files over Web pages in real-time. The player can be downloaded as freeware. For more information about playing audio/video over the Internet see Adding multimedia to your web pages
A system which connects one or two networks together and ensures that the data going between them is delivered quickly and efficiently. A router can be either sofware or hardware. For more information about routers see Multi-user access to the Internet
A search engine is the term used for the various tools you can use to search the Internet for information. ANZWERS, Alta Vista or Lycos are examples of search engines you can access through SOFWeb
Software distributed via the honor system. You download shareware from the Internet, try it out, and if you keep it, are expected to pay a shareware fee. Shareware is generally much less expensive than commercial software and may be every bit as good. See also Freeware.
When you log into this kind of account, the computer you log into is connected to the Internet, but your computer isn't.
SLIP/PPP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)
SLIP and PPP are two different types of software used to connect a computer to another computer via a modem. When you run either SLIP or PPP software on your computer to connect to your ISP's (Internet Service Provider) computer, then for the duration of the connection, you are assigned an IP address and become part of the Internet.
SPAM Unsolicited e-mail messages or Newsgroups postings, usually advertising a product.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
This is the set of protocols that drives the Internet, regulating how data is transferred between computers.
TELNET- A Protocol that enables Internet users to logon to another computer linked to the Internet. This facility allows remote access to a computer anywhere in the world if it also is connected to the Internet. Because there are so many different kinds of computers joined together on the Internet, Telnet software acts a bit like an interpreter, allowing all the different computers to talk to each other.
USER ID- Your Internet user identification. It may be a personal id or a group id. For example your school might have it's own e-mail address, which identifies the school or you might have your own e-mail address. You might need a user id to log onto particular computers or services.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)- Every page on the Internet has a unique identifying address or URL. SOFWeb's URL is If you already know the URL of a useful site, then simply type that address in the location bar at the top of the Netscape screen and press Enter. Alternatively, click on the Open button and type the URL into the dialogue box which appears, hit returned (enter) and you will be taken directly to that site.
A computer virus is a piece of software which once executed on your computer can cause all kinds of damage. For more information about viruses, and how you can protect your computer from them, see Viruses.
A Web browser is the software program that you use to view WWW pages. You are probably using Netscape, but there are several others, for example Microsoft's Internet Explorer, Mosaic, or Lynx, which is a text only browser. Netscape is called a graphical browser because it allows you to view pictures as well as text.
WEB SITE- In the World Wide Web (WWW) a web site is a computer system that runs a Web server, and has been set up for publishing documents on the Web. SOFWeb is one of the Victorian Department of Education's Web sites.
WWW (World Wide Web)- This is a global hyper-text-based information system which allows users to explore that Internet around the world. It is an attempt to organise all documents on the Internet as a set of hypertext documents which are searched via "links". These links are to other files on the same computer or to files held on another computer.



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